In addition, there was another potential contributing factor in the bituminous coal: iron sulfide, also known as pyrite, was likely present. , Congress authorized construction of Maine on 3 August 1886, and her keel was laid down on 17 October 1888, at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. , The board arrived on 21 February and took testimony from survivors, witnesses, and divers (who were sent down to investigate the wreck). Jenkins and Merritt Dead", "Annual report of the Surgeon General of the US Navy 1898", "Memorandum to the Secretary of the Navy", "Letter to Captain Charles O'Neil, Chief of the Ordnance Bureau", "What Destroyed the USS MAINE – An opinion", "A Few Spaniards Flee; Not Many Accept Free Transportation from Here to Havana on the Panama.  They could also be loaded at any angle of train; initially the main guns of Texas, by comparison, with external rammers, could be loaded only when trained on the centerline or directly abeam, a common feature in battleships built before 1890. Another early published plan shows the same. Maine Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery", "Havana restores monument to victims of USS Maine", "U.S.S. Her armament was specified as: four 10-inch (254 mm) guns, six 6-inch (152 mm) guns, various light weapons, and four torpedo tubes. After lying on the bottom of Havana harbor for fourteen years these pumps were found to be still operational, and were subsequently used to raise the ship. The three Maine - class battleships - Maine Missouri, and Ohio - were built at the turn of the 20th century for the United States Navy. Her keel was laid down by New York Naval Shipyard of Brooklyn, New York on October 17th, 1888. In addition, she was designed to carry two 14.8 long tons (15.0 t) steam-powered torpedo boats, each with a single 14-inch (356 mm) torpedo tube and a one-pounder gun. She was formally launched on November 18th, 1890 and commissioned on September 17th, 1895. Captain Sampson read Commander Converse a hypothetical situation of a coal bunker fire igniting the reserve six-inch ammunition, with a resulting explosion sinking the ship. She anchored there two days, then proceeded to Newport, Rhode Island, for fitting out and test firing of her torpedoes. The deck sloped downwards to the sides, but its thickness increased to 3 inches (76 mm). , Memorial plaque by Charles Keck, USS Maine Memorial, Sculpture group by Attilio Piccirilli at USS Maine Memorial, Columbia Triumphant sculpture group atop USS Maine Memorial. Maine was the first U.S. capital ship to have its power plant given as high a priority as its fighting strength. All work is performed by our talented Maine craftsmen, not outsourced. The 1898 US Navy Surgeon General Reported that the ship's crew consisted of 355: 26 officers, 290 sailors, and 39 marines.  The wisdom of this tactic was purely theoretical at the time it was implemented. He adds that AME used flawed data concerning the Maine's design and ammunition storage. The memorial includes the ship's main mast. became a rallying cry for action. Maine's weight distribution was ill-balanced, which slowed her considerably. Both papers exaggerated and distorted any information they could obtain, sometimes even fabricating news when none that fitted their agenda was available. In 1883, U.S. Secretary of the Navy William H. Hunt secured funds from Congress to build modern steel ships. At the time she was laid down, armored cruisers such as Maine were intended to serve as small battleships on overseas service and were built with heavy belt armor. Because they were mounted toward the ends of the ship, away from its center of gravity, Maine was also prone to greater motion in heavy seas. , The Maine had been outfitted with Worthington steam pumps. National Geographic reported that "a fire in the coal bunker could have generated sufficient heat to touch off an explosion in the adjacent magazine [but] on the other hand, computer analysis also shows that even a small, handmade mine could have penetrated the ship's hull and set off explosions within". The following is a list of all Officers, Crew and Marines attached to the USS Maine on the day of its destruction. In November 1890, Tracy and Andrew Carnegie signed a contract for Homestead to supply 6000 tons of nickel steel. Three days later, the interior of the cofferdam was full and Maine floated. She was loaded with dynamite as a possible aid to her sinking. The ship forward of frame 41 was entirely destroyed; a twisted mass of steel out of line with the rest of the hull, all that was left of the bow, bore no resemblance to a ship. U.S.S. This process can result from the disruption caused by mining from the seams, which exposes the sulfides in the ore to air and water. Such was the revolutionary British design that all preceding warships came to be known as "pre-dreadnoughts" of which USS Maine was one. Wegner suggests that the fact that this inquiry could be held without the threat of war, which had been the case in 1898, lent it the potential for greater objectivity than had been possible previously. , The winning design for Maine was from Theodore D. Wilson, who served as chief constructor for C & R and was a member on the Naval Advisory Board in 1881.  The official report from the board, which was presented to the Navy Department in Washington on 21 March, specifically stated the following: "At frame 18 the vertical keel is broken in two and the flat keel is bent at an angle similar to the angle formed by the outside bottom plating. (1979). Waking up President McKinley to break the news, Commander Francis W. Dickins referred to it as an "accident. Her main turrets, awkwardly situated on a cut-away gundeck, were nearly awash in bad weather. Both ships had two gun turrets staggered en échelon, and full masts were omitted due to the increased reliability of steam engines.  These guns were mounted in twin hydraulically powered Mark 3 turrets, the fore turret sponsoned to starboard and the aft turret sponsoned to port.. On February 15, her forward gunpowder magazines exploded, killing 266 sailors and sinking in the harbour. Those who died in hospitals were buried in Key West.  The monument was cleaned and restored in 2013. Although the Maine explosion was not a direct cause, it served as a catalyst that accelerated the events leading up to the war. Bethlehem Steel Company had promised the navy 300 tons per month by December 1889 and had ordered heavy castings and forging presses from the British firm of Armstrong Whitworth in 1886 to fulfil its contract. Commander Converse "simply stated, without elaboration, that he could not realize such an event happening".. The sinking of the Maine riveted American attention on the Cuban crisis, … , In 2000, the wreck of Maine was rediscovered by Advanced Digital Communications, a Toronto-based expedition company, in about 3,770 feet (1,150 m) of water roughly 3 miles (4.8 km) northeast of Havana Harbor. Firedamp is explosive at concentrations between 4% and 16%, with most violence at around 10%. Wegner was also critical of the fact that participants in the Rickover study were not consulted until AME's analysis was essentially complete, far too late to confirm the veracity of data being used or engage in any other meaningful cooperation. A design contest was held, asking naval architects to submit designs for the two ships: armored cruiser Maine and battleship Texas. The bodies of its crew were then removed to the armored cruiser North Carolina for repatriation. Crowds see them Depart – Shouts of Derision Follow the Vessel, Which Is Rumored to Have Munitions of War Aboard – The Seneca Also Sails", "Official Report of the Naval Court of Inquiry into the loss of the Battleship MAINE (Sampson Board)", "Estados Unidos, sus secuaces y los ataques de falsa bandera", "Remember the Maine? The main batteries were to be increased from 12-inch to 13-inch guns and the 4-inch guns with 5-inch guns. The board knew at that time that the U.S. Navy could not challenge any major European fleet; at best, it could wear down an opponent's merchant fleet and hope to make some progress through general attrition there. Maine was rooted in U.S. naval expansion of the 1880s. Three years had been spent waiting for her armor plating alone. [a] Maine and the similar battleship Texas were both represented as an advance in American warship design, reflecting the latest European naval developments. Whitney decided instead to ask Congress for two 6,000-ton warships, and they were authorized in August 1886. The 10" guns were initially to be mounted in open barbettes (the C & R proposal blueprint shows them as such). U.S. naval yards turned out a number of vessels known as the ABCD ships, which were the steel-hulled Atlanta, … The conning tower had 10-inch walls. While some on the board supported a strict policy of commerce raiding, others argued it would be ineffective against the potential threat of enemy battleships stationed near the American coast. This technically allowed both turrets to fire across the ship's deck (cross-deck fire), between the sections. In 1898 she was sent to Havana to protect US interests during the local revolt against the Spanish government. Rickover asked whether they could investigate the matter, and they agreed.  She had two inverted vertical triple-expansion steam engines, mounted in watertight compartments and separated by a fore-to-aft bulkhead, with a total designed output of 9,293 indicated horsepower (6,930 kW). Crowninshield. Wegner says that all relevant documents were obtained and studied, including the ship's plans and weekly reports of the unwatering of Maine in 1912 (the progress of the cofferdam) written by William Furgueson, chief engineer for the project. ", The World, while overall not as lurid or shrill in tone as the Journal, nevertheless indulged in similar theatrics, insisting continually that Maine had been bombed or mined. , Wegner suggests that a combination of naval ship design and a change in the type of coal used to fuel naval ships might have facilitated the explosion postulated by the Rickover study. Two experts were brought in to analyze the naval demolitions and ship explosions. USS Maine would have been the third ship to bear that name had she been commissioned. 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