earthquake effects on dams

Lau, B. Noruziaan, A.G. RazaqpurModeling of contraction joints and shear sliding effects on earthquake response of arch dams. Methods of analyzing the stability of earth dams during earthquakes are reviewed and dynamic … In other words, approximately 3.0 million cubic meter of dam embankment was displaced into the reservoir. Earthquake effects on dams mainly depend on dam types. Usually the main hazard, which is addressed in codes and regulations, is the earthquake ground shaking. For fault movements in dam site, the Shih-Kang weir can be considered as good case study. The purpose of any dam is to impound the flowing water. This phenomenon is dealed with the fact that the transferred energy by rockfill is not absorbed by concrete face during earthquake. Earthquakes inflict great damage to human structures such as buildings, roads, rails, factories, dams, bridges etc. It has the largest reservoir of Turkey with 48 700 hm3 (Figure 2). Civil Engng 22 , 278 – 279 . Recently scientists believe the fact that the over one percent of reservoirs resulted to earthquake which can damage or fail the main structure. These dams included most of those shaken in 1971. After selection of earthquakes, static, pseudo-static and dynamic analyses should be performed and liquefaction phenomenon and near source effect should be evaluated. It means that it has high risk potential for downstream life and structures. After severe damages observed on this dam, dam engineers more seriously considered active or seismogenic faults on dam sites. They cause loss of human life due to collapse of buildings. Also significant effects have been observed Hsingfengkiang dam in China, Kariba dam in Zimbabwe and Kremasta dam in Greece. Lower San Fernando Dam in USA is first known dam failed as a result of liquefaction phenomenon under the earthquake loading conditions. Many people lose their money and property. The effect of reservoir loading on the existing stress field has been investigated by several studies [1, 5, 13, 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23]. [28] reveals the fact that active faults, which are very close to the foundation of dams, have the potential to cause damaging displacement of the structure. Effects of Earthquakes on Dams and Embankments. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. [31] states that the 25-years old rockfill dam also has some problems in static condition and it cannot meet current seismic design standards. Active faults pose the potential to cause damaging displacement of the structure when they are located very close to dam site. For the dams, which are under near source effect, embankment type with clay core seems more appropriate type because of being self-repairing properties of clay material when this type is technically and economically feasible for the selected dam site. The author expresses his gratitude to the authorities of State Hydraulics Works for providing some technical data during completion of this study. TESTS ON LIGHT GAUGE STEEL CYLINDRICAL SHELLS. It is clear that number of seismic events increases near reservoir areas of large dams after impounding sequence. It is known as the earthquake that produces the ground motions at the site that can reasonably be expected to occur within the service life of the project [3]. The 1994 Northridge earthquake, some ground movement with minor cracking seems to have occurred at the sites of Los Angeles Dam, which was constructed to replace the San Fernando Reservoir. [28] stated that safety concerns for embankment dams subjected to earthquakes involve either the loss of stability due to a loss of strength of the embankment and foundation materials or excessive deformations such as slumping, settlement, cracking and planer or rotational slope failures. According to recent surveys, Reservoir Triggering Seismicity (RTS) has been observed at over 100 locations worldwide [4, 19, 20]. There are multiple cases where earthquakes have resulted in sliding and lateral spreading of embankments, crest settlement, and in some instances liquefaction and embankment failure. Anaïs Lovera, Siavash Ghabezloo , Jean Sulem, Mark F. Randolph, Marc Kham and Elisabeth Palix. The author’s thought was absolutely confirmed by damage on the Dogansehir earthquake with Ms of 5.8 on Surgu dam. This earthquake has been related to the construction of the Zipingpu Dam, which is a 156 m high concrete faced rockfill dam with a reservoir of 1 120 hm3. Earthquake is defined as a sudden and rapid shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface and it creates seismic waves, which can result in damages and failures on man-made structures constructed on the crust of earth [18]. These PGA values are high. Researchers state that earthquakes were caused in their reservoirs by RTS. [31] state that earthquake safety of dams is an important phenomenon in dam engineering and requires more comprehensive seismic studies for understanding the seismic behavior of dams subjected to severe earthquakes. This paper gives an overview on the effects of earthquake on dams and effects of dam on earthquake occurrence, and points out the necessity of special design and construction measures for the dams, which are under the effects of strong ground motions. The earthquake intensity has increased after impounding of Keban Dam, which is the second largest dam of Turkey with a storage capacity of 31000 hm3.and 207 m height from foundation [30]. The 1994 Northridge Earthquake induced ground motions, sometimes quite severe, at 105 dams located within a 75 km radius of its epicenter (California State Division of Safety of Dams, post-earthquake inspection report update, May 1994). To sign up for alerts, please log in first. An intensive grouting program was applied to prevent water leakage from the reservoir [28]. View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. Figure 4 summarizes the methods of analysis for a dam site and dam body. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Ground shaking from earthquakes can collapse dams. Pile response to multi-directional lateral loading using P–y curves approach. Its embankment with the structures on crest slid into the reservoir. There are some examples in India for structures located at the northern India. [8] states that dams must be designed to withstand strong earthquakes, which can seriously result multiple hazards. Local arrivals in Assisi fell drastically the month following the main shock, compared to the same month of the previous year. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. In Turkey, it is defined as a level of ground motion having 2 percent probability of not being exceeded in 50 years. Last week, China mounted an arduous mission to … Due to the unavailability of strong motion records, various attenuation relationships were adopted to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) acting on dam sites. It generally means the state change from solid to liquid. Effects of Earthquake. One of the most serious cases was in 1967 in Koyna, India. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. If ther happens to be any known fault plane in the reservoir area, this sudden increase in pore-water-pressure … The Ambiesta arch dam in northern Italy is 59 m high and was only 22 km from the epicentre of the Gemona-Friuli earthquake of 6 May 1976 (Magnitude 6.5). Typical values of a were 0.05 to 0.15, and inclusion of earthquake effects still allowed Design of a concrete arch dam (below) must take into account the three-dimensional structural action. During the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, 245 dams had been affected and rehabilitated or strengthened after the earthquake [34]. Damages to dams and their appurtenant facilities may be resulted from (1) direct fault movement across the dam foundation or (2) ground motion induced at the dam site by an earthquake located at some distance from the dam. Zangar, C. N. & Haefeli, R. J. Embankments and outlet towers respond to earthquake vibrations. Recently Searched . We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. 6.3.1 Dam–Foundation Interaction Effects 112. Terhi dam in India has also similar position under dynamic loading conditions. This paper proposes an approach to economic assessment of the impact on tourist flows of the earthquake that hit the Umbria region in Central Italy on September 26, 1997. Liquefaction is defined as a phenomena in which the strength and stiffness of a saturated soil is reduced earthquake shaking. There are some important cases, which subjected to damages and failures after earthquake. It causes stresses, deformations, cracking, sliding, overturning, etc. 7.1.1 Choice of Example 117. There is no one major problem in seismic safety of embankment dams. At the first design stage, it was considered only Eastern Anatolian Fault System (DAF) for seismic hazard analysis. It is a well-known phenomenon that earthquakes can result damages and failures for dams and their appurtenant structures. During the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, 245 dams had been affected and rehabilitated or strengthened after the earthquake. In case of the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China many structures about 1803 dams and 403 hydropower plants having a total installed capacity of 3.3 GW were damaged due to strong ground shaking. If you need an account, please register here, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Selecting this option will search the current publication in context. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. This means one must consider both the inertial effect of the structural mass as well as that of the water in the artificial reservoir. Article copyright remains as specified within the article. Efficient techniques are developed for evaluating the … It was subjected to an earthquake with magnitude of 6.3 in 1967. This leads to formation of reservoir in which a large portion of land is submerged along with the river course on which the dam is made. JM DAVIES and JG YOUNG. Springer-Verlag, NY (1988) Google Scholar. Also, Terbela dam with a reservoir of 13 690 hm3 in Pakistan can be classified as high risk dam when considered this phenomena. Seismic zones and earthquakes within the area having a radius of 100 km around the dam site should be considered. The purpose of this paper is to sketch the state of the art in dam engineering, as based on lessons learnt from seismic events. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. As a result of an extensive survey and a search of available literature [28, 29, 31]. Figure 1 shows buckling of river embankment lining after the earthquake. N. M. Newmark. Lower San Fernando Dam in USA is first example failed as a result of liquefaction phenomenon under the earthquake loading conditions. One of the Namada Valley dam, which is built at the triple junction of the fault zones, tectonically and geologically a disturbed area. [28] stated that Surgu dam, which damaged on the Dogansehir earthquake with Ms of 5.8 in 1986, Polat dam and Cat dam have the PGA values of 0.256g, 0.170g and 0.211g, respectively. There is another fact that dams with large reservoirs also trigger earthquake. State Hydraulics Works for providing some technical data during completion of this study, the Shih-Kang weir can be by... Thought was absolutely confirmed by damage on the consequences of dam site the effect... These zones including faults and earthquakes they are subjected to damages and failures for dam structures mainly depends on of. Enough stress to trigger an earthquake with magnitude of 6.5 to 7.0, pseudo-static and dynamic analyses should be by... 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